SKRAM Further Information
THE ULTIMATE PEST PREVENTION FOR ALL PLANTS
The TRIPLE P (Plant Promotion Products) range is formulated for the protection of professional continuous plant growth programmes in conjunction with Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Integrated Crop Management (ICM) and biological control programmes. It is designed to deliver effective control of aphids, whiteflies, thrips and spider mites and good control of mealybugs, leafhoppers, psyllids, suckers and scale insects when applied as a contact penetration foliar spray. It also provides effective control of common root rot diseases, spread via zoosporic fungi such as pythium and phytophthora, when added to nutrient solution or irrigation water.
Question: What is SKRAM?
Answer: SKRAM is an emulsion in water which contains medium chain fatty acid nonionic surfactants derived from natural biotransformation of renewable plant-based oils (olive oil, soybean oil, yeast derived oil, and microalgae fatty acid methyl esters). SKRAM is designed to deliver effective control of whitefly, aphids and mites on protected crops such as strawberry, tomato and cucumber. SKRAM is exempt from maximum residue limit (MRL) testing and has a zero-day preharvest interval for all crops. It has minimal impact on bees, pollinators and beneficial arthropods and can be used in organic crops.
On pest contact it provides effective control of aphids, whiteflies, thrips and spider mites and good control of mealybugs, leafhoppers, psyllids, suckers and scale insects. It is effective against all insect and spider mite life stages, particularly against motile forms.
Question: How does SKRAM work?
Answer: SKRAM is active following contact with the pest body. It is active against all stages of insects and mites: juveniles and adults, as well as eggs. SKRAM contains medium chain fatty acid nonionic surfactant active substances. These are effective as the lipophilic carbon chains penetrate the external body wall of the target pest. The unsaturated part of the carbon chains interacts with multiple vital metabolic processes, which interfere with pest feeding activity (antifeedant effect), resulting in plant protection from predation. The first visible effect is the immediate cessation of feeding activity. This results in reduced feeding, egg laying and egg viability.
SKRAM is effective at destroying zoospore plasma membranes, thus reducing the ability of the spores to move in nutrient streams and infect plants. SKRAM disrupts zoospores released by active disease outbreaks and prevent these from infecting new plants. For this to be effective, SKRAM needs to be continually maintained in the nutrient solution. SKRAM also has an important role to play in general system and indoor garden hygiene. Since surfactants can not only assist in removal of biofilms and general cleaning, but also in the destruction of disease zoospores, they are a great tool for prevention of pathogen problems.
The addition of SKRAM to hydroponic nutrient solutions significantly increases crop yields and has been found to increase water use efficiency by making root membranes more permeable, thus allowing more nutrients to be absorbed by the roots. SKRAM can also act as a synergist with plant hormones giving further growth boosting effects.
Question: What are the benefits of using SKRAM?
- Fits well with Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Integrated Crop Management (ICM) and Biological Control Programmes.
- Provides fast and long acting control of pest populations when applied as per instructions.
- Controls strains of insects and mites resistant to other active substances.
- Has no cross resistance with insecticides or acaricides.
- SKRAM formulation provides high levels of security to users and the environment.
- Has no residual activity, is safe for use on all edible crops and ornamental plants, and degrades rapidly in the environment.
- It has minimal impact on bees, pollinators, beneficial arthropods and Biological Control Programmes.
- Assists in removal of biofilms and general cleaning.
- Effective at disrupting zoospore plasma membranes, thus preventing the ability of the spores to move in nutrient streams and infect plants.
- Increases nutrient bioavailability and plant growth rates.
- Improved harvested crop shelf life.
- Effective control of common root rot disease pathogens.
- The addition of SKRAM to nutrient solutions can significantly increase crop yields and has been found to increase water use efficiency by making root membranes more permeable, thus allowing more nutrients to be absorbed by the roots.
- SKRAM can also act as a synergist with plant hormones giving further growth boosting effects.
- SKRAM is an antifeedant that discourages pests from feeding on treated plants. This results in reduced feeding, egg laying and egg viability.
- It aids growing, regrowth, assists photosynthesis and sustains healthy-looking plants.
Question: When and how to apply SKRAM?
Answer: Application timing – all crops
- SKRAM should always be used in accordance with the label at recommended rates for maximum benefit in terms of insect control and resistance management.
- SKRAM is readily miscible in water, so use minimum agitation during preparation and application to avoid the formation of foam.
- Use reverse osmosis (RO) make-up water. Use good quality soft water, avoid hard water over with more than >300 parts per million CaCO₃ equivalent in water hardness. Conduct a jar test if water hardness is high and correct if required.
- Ensure complete wetting of the target pests, aiming to achieve good placement of the solution on the target foliage and covering the different areas on the plant where the respective pests are located (including the underside of the leaves, if applicable). Ensure complete wetting of different areas of plant and target pests.
- Apply with a suitable spray which delivers even coverage (with slight run-off).
- Always use clean spraying equipment, ensuring all residues from previous applications have been removed from the spray tank and spray lines.
- Check to ensure correct functionality of nozzles for optimum application. Use the most suitable means of application available to achieve the desired coverage. Small drop Guardian Air Spraytip nozzles give a good number of drops per litre, while fan jet give more drops per litre, but are less easy to control with poorer retention and deposition as a consequence. Avoid the use of hollow cone nozzles as trials with vegetable crops found that the spray tends to go around the plants, and to drift. Angled nozzles tend to give better coverage than vertical nozzles as the spray is directed around all sides of the plant.
- Where there is a need to apply SKRAM to the underside of the canopy, drop leg systems should be considered. In orchards or soft fruit systems, mist blowers and air sleeve systems can be effective, but must be properly set up for the crop in question.
- Only apply when plants are fully hydrated. Do not apply in extreme heat or high light intensity.
- Use the spray solution immediately following preparation. Do not store for future use as this may lead to some separation and consequent dilution of effect.
- DO NOT MIX SKRAM with sulphur or acidic products as they may be physically incompatible and may cause phytotoxicity.
- In case of tank mixes with other products, SKRAM must always be the product that is added last to the spray tank.
- There is no residual activity, no translaminar or systemic effects, and no residual persistence.
STANDARD PROPHYLACTIC MAINTENANCE RATE
Add 15ml SKRAM to 1 Litre make-up water. Spray every 3-10 days.
INFESTATION TREATMENT RATE
Add 15ml-30ml SKRAM to 1 Litre make-up water.
Spray once per day for 3 days, then once every 3 days.
Initiate dose escalation at the first signs of the pest infestation build-up, or when founding colonies of the target pest appear.
Apply in the period of day when the pest is likely to be most vulnerable to contact.
Aim to target all stages, especially juveniles.
Preferably treat in the morning, in warm temperatures, avoiding the peak heat of the day.
CONDITIONS FOR APPLICATION
Best results are achieved with colonies of 10-40 individuals/shoot. With very high populations, individuals shielded from the spray may restart the infestation and will require further treatment.
Target larvae or nymphs to better control the infestation build up.
On low-height or creeping plants, regulate the pressure and nozzle orientation to achieve full coverage.
On crops with vertical growth, target the basal foliage to control the juveniles and higher leaves against adults.
Target juveniles and adults.
Set the spraying action to reach flowers and wet the vegetation thoroughly.
Consider applying in combination with predator insects, such as Orius laevigatus, Amblyseius cucumeris, Amblyseius montdorensis, Amblyseius swirskii.
Wet the vegetation with suitable volume on both sides of the leaves.
Consider applying in combination with phytoseids mites such as Phytoseiulus persimilis, Amblyseilus californicus.
Monitor the presence of Anthocorids and treat when they are well established.
Achieve a complete wetting of the suckers (Scaphoideus titanus).
Remove weeds along the vine row before application to ensure wetting of suckers.
Scales and Mealybugs
Regulate volume and spraying pressure to enable the spray solution to penetrate the vegetation and fruit, where individuals are hidden.
Be careful of any undesired effect on fruits and grapes, avoiding treatment at the highest temperature and runoff of product to the bottom of berries.
Aubergine, Pepper and Chilli
- Apply SKRAM for the control of aphids, whitefly and spider mite in permanent glasshouses with full enclosure.
- Apply SKRAM for the control of aphids, whitefly and spider mite in permanent glasshouses with full enclosure.
Leafy vegetables and fresh herbs: angelica, baby leaf crops, balm, basil, bay, caraway leaves, celery leaves, chervil, chives, coriander leaves, cress, dill leaves, edible flowers, endive, fennel leaves, herb – other, hyssop, lamb’s lettuce, land cress, lettuce, lovage leaves, marjoram, mint, oregano, parsley, purslane, red mustard, rocket, rosemary, sage, salad burnet, savoury, spinach, spinach beet, sweet cicely, tarragon, thyme, watercress in propagation, chamomile, ginkgo, ginseng, hibiscus flowers, lime flowers, mallow, rose petals, strawberry leaves, valerian.
- Apply SKRAM for the control of Aphids (Aphididae), Western Flower Thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis), Thrips (Thrips tabaci) and Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae).
Field vegetables: carrot, celeriac, horseradish, Jerusalem artichoke, parsley root, parsnip, radish, red beet, salsify, swede, turnip, bulb onion, garlic, salad onion, shallot, asparagus, celery, Florence fennel, Globe artichoke, leek, rhubarb, courgette and summer squash, sweetcorn, winter squash and pumpkin, broccoli/calabrese, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, choi sum, collard kale, kohlrabi, oriental cabbage, beans without pods (fresh), broad bean (fresh), dwarf French bean, edible podded pea, lentil (fresh), runner bean, vining pea.
- Apply SKRAM for the control of thrips (Thrips tabaci), Aphids (Aphididae) and cabbage aphid.
Soft fruit: bilberry, blackberry, blackcurrant and redcurrant, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, gooseberry, loganberry and rubus hybrid, mulberry, raspberry, rose hips, strawberries.
- Apply SKRAM for the control of Aphids (Aphididae), Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae), Western Flower Thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis), leaf hoppers, Strawberry blossom weevil (Anthonumus rubi), Thrips (Thrips fuscipennis) and whitefly.
Tree nuts, Pome fruit, Stone fruit and Wine grapes: almond, apple, apricot, cherry, chestnut, hazelnut, peach and nectarine, pear, plum, quince, walnut, wine grapes
- Apply SKRAM for the control of Aphids (Aphididae), two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and blossom weevil.
- Featuring multiple modes of action, SKRAM can be used to replace or support conventional chemistry in the interests of resistance management.
- In IPM programmes apply SKRAM in combination with predators or parasitoids of the target pest, such as Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.
Effects on Pollinators
- SKRAM has no repellent effect either on bees. SKRAM may be applied during flowering – except when pollinators are actively foraging – and does not pose risk to bumble bees or honeybees if direct spraying with full coverage is avoided.
- In protected crops, hives should be closed during spraying but can be safely re-opened once the product has dried (estimated 6-12 hours after spraying in standard conditions).
Beneficial Organism Species Type Target IOBC rating
Amblyseius californicus (adults, nymphs) Predator Red Spider Mites 1
Amblyseius cucumeris Predator Thrips 1
Amblyseius montdorensis Predator Thrips No effect
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Thrips,Whiteflies,Spider Mites 1
Aphidius colemani (hatched mummies) Parasitoid Aphids 1
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Aphids No effect
Encarsia formosa (hatched pupae) Parasitoid Whiteflies 2
Lysiphlebus spp Parasitoid Aphids No effect
Macrolophus caliginosus Predator Whiteflies,Tuta absoluta 2
Nesidiocoris tenuis Predator Whiteflies,Tuta absoluta No effect
Orius laevigatus Predator Thrips 1
Phytoseilus persimilis Predator Red Spider Mites 2
Therodiplosis persicae (F. acarisuga) Predator Red Spider Mites 1
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Mealybugs 1
Delphastus catalinae Predator Whiteflies 1
Diglyphus isaea Parasitoid Liriomyza spp 1
SOURCE: International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control toxicity class according to studies conducted at IPM Impact, Nederhespen Belgium, 2014-2016.
IOBC rating: 1 = Harmless, 2 = Slightly harmful, 3 = Moderately harmful, 4 = Harmful
Surfactants, have been proven to assist with root disease control in the nutrient solution and more recently have been proven to have plant growth boosting effects under certain conditions.
Question: What are surfactants?
Answer: Surfactants are one of the most widely used additives in agriculture. They essentially lower surface tension and allow the spreading and sticking of liquids as well as enhance the absorption of compounds and sprays. In this way they allow a foliar applied spray to form a uniform, thin, easily absorbed layer over a leaf surface rather than just running off the waxy cuticle in large droplets.
Surfactants are also used as wetting agents in soil and in soilless growing mixes, allowing the substrate to initially saturate up easily as media such as peat can be water repellent when fully dry. However, it is important to note that it is only the non-ionic surfactants that have proven effects on pathogen control and plant growth when added to the nutrient solution.
Apart from their common use as spray additives and wetting agents, non-ionic surfactants have two major potential uses in hydroponic nutrient solutions.
The first has been known since the 1960s—the fact that non-ionic surfactants have the ability to kill pathogen zoospores and control the spread of certain root rot diseases in the nutrient solution.
Another potential use is the more recently reported effect of surfactants boosting plant growth in some species under hydroponic conditions.
Surfactants and pathogen control
Many of the common root rot diseases problematic in hydroponics are spread via zoospores. Zoosporic fungi include the dreaded pythium, but also phytophthora root rot. There are approximately 143 species of zoosporic plant pathogens. What makes these particularly damaging in hydroponics is that diseases producing zoospores release these into the nutrient solution or irrigation water.
Zoospores survive easily in water and are able to swim, locate and infest new root systems. Therefore, zoospores in hydroponic systems can rapidly spread an isolated disease outbreak fairly rapidly by this highly efficient system of zoospore infection. Zoosporic fungal diseases such as pythium actually thrive under warm, wet hydroponic conditions that favour the spread via motile spores, particularly if plants have been weakened or stressed in any way.
The effect nonionic surfactants have on controlling disease zoospores in hydroponic nutrient solutions was discovered by accident when researchers applied a fungicide containing a surfactant to a hydroponic lettuce crop. It was discovered that the synthetic surfactant in the fungicide was effective in destroying the zoospore plasma membrane, thus reducing the ability of the spores to move and infect plants and eventually kill them.
While nonionic surfactants had little or no effect on any other stage of the disease life cycle (that have cell walls rather than plasma membranes), in killing or retarding the zoospores in the nutrient solution, the potential for the control of these root infecting pathogens was realised.
Further studies were carried out on a number of different hydroponic crops prone to zoosporic fungal disease outbreaks. Most found highly promising results in that nonionic surfactant used at the correct rate could give a high degree of disease control of pythium and phytophthora in the nutrient solution.
However, while the surfactant could destroy large numbers of zoospores being carried by the nutrient solution, hence preventing, or slowing the spread of these diseases, it had no effect on plants already infected when the disease was present inside plant tissue. Therefore, use of nonionic surfactants in the nutrient solution is more of a preventative action rather than curative.
Nonionic surfactants destroy zoospores released by active disease outbreaks and prevent these from infecting new plants. For this to be effective, the correct rate of nonionic surfactant products, needs to be continually maintained in the nutrient solution and when this has been achieved, growers have reported good results.
Nonionic surfactants, including SKRAM, also have an important role to play in general system and indoor garden hygiene. Since surfactants can not only assist in removal of biofilms and general cleaning, but also in the destruction of disease zoospores, they are a great tool for prevention of pathogen problems.
Surfactants and growth enhancement
While there have been many research trials since the 1960s examining the effects of non-ionic surfactants on pathogen control in the nutrient solution, the re-evaluation that these same surfactants may have other growth benefits has not been as extensively studied.
A more recent study reported that the addition of nonionic surfactant to hydroponic nutrient solutions increased fresh and dry weights of peace lily and impatiens by 17% and 33% respectively.
The most likely mode of action of surfactants when added to the nutrient solution is that they may make root membranes more permeable, thus allowing more nutrients (or other compounds) to be absorbed by the roots.
The plant growth promoting effects of nonionic surfactants in SKRAM probably go even further than this and it has been suggested that these compounds can also act as synergists with plant hormones such as auxins giving further growth boosting effects.
Question: Can SKRAM repel insects in soil?
Dosage: Add 1ml (approximately ¼ teaspoon) of SKRAM to 45 litres of water. For best results, make continuous applications using the plant watering system.
Tips: For Outdoor Gardens: Add 1ml (approximately ¼ teaspoon) of SKRAM to every 45 litres of water and continuously apply the treated water to the entire garden’s soil or concentrate the application to the plant’s root zone. Higher doses may be done to the crop if prior small batch testing for efficacy justifies it.
For Potted Plants Soil or Hydroponics: Add 1ml (approximately ¼ teaspoon) SKRAM to every 45 litres of water. Continuously water or feed the plants with the dosage suggested. Use enough to flood the soil/hydroponic growing media with good run-off. Higher doses may be used on the crop if prior small batch testing for efficacy justifies it.
For Hydroponic Cloning Machines, Hydroponic Systems to eliminate slime/biofilm in equipment, pipes, sprayers, pumps, tubes, and on roots: Add 1ml (approximately ¼ teaspoon) SKRAM to every 45 litres of water. Continuously water or feed the plants. Use enough to flood the soil/hydroponic growing media with good run-off. Higher doses may be used on the crop if prior small batch testing for efficacy justifies it.
For a fun experiment do this: Add 1ml (approximately ¼ teaspoon) SKRAM to every 45 litres of water. Continuously water at this dosage to one row of plants and not to the other row. Watch the difference in growth from the reduction of biofilm and adverse soil insects. If you use a higher dose do you get better results? See what happens when the biofilm has been removed from the roots. Experimenting makes life fun!
We would love to hear about your experiments! What worked for you, what did not, what you liked, and what you did not. We love to experiment!
Question: Can I use SKRAM in my hydroponic system to keep it free of pests and slime?
SKRAM will keep roots, pipes, tubes, drippers, sprayers, and tanks free of biofilm. SKRAM keeps your system running clean without the use of chlorine or system cleansers. This makes SKRAM even more affordable. It is like having four products and only paying for one! One product for leaf insects, one for leaf powdery mildew, one for soil insects, and one for soil and hydroponics biofilms.
Dosage: We suggest that you start with 1ml (approximately ¼ teaspoon) SKRAM per 45 litres of water or 5ml (approximately 1 teaspoon) SKRAM per 225 litres of water and see how well the equipment and roots are being kept clean. This dosage is suggested as a good place to start. Hydroponic systems that have small tubes and orifices will need to be cleaned out gradually otherwise plugging may occur. This product has been formulated to be concentrated and economical. Increase the dose if you feel it is a benefit to the plant growth, stemming from a lack of biofilm. This dosage will repel insects and will help keep colonization of the growth from occurring.
Question: Can you use SKRAM in soil and hydroponics?
Tip: SKRAM can replace four individual products resulting in a lower cost to the farm/greenhouse. SKRAM, besides being an excellent leaf cleanser, it can be applied to the water when watering. By continuously using SKRAM at super low doses during watering, the continuous applications repel insects in the growing medium while at the same time greatly reducing or eliminating biofilm on the roots. Biofilm is one of the biggest problems facing organic and non-organic growers. Biofilm, as it forms on roots, restricts nutrients, water and oxygen from entering the roots. The reduction of oxygen from the biofilm promotes the die-off of smaller roots which in-turn attracts contaminates to the decaying matter. The continuous low-dose application of SKRAM makes the growing medium less desirable for contaminate colonization while at the same time helping plants achieve true genetic potential.
Note: While a well-developed root system is generally recognised as a good thing, the biofilm will cause the plant root system to be larger than needed, robbing energy from buds and blooms to regenerate unhealthy roots.
Question: Can SKRAM remove biofilms in soil?
Dosage: Use 15ml of SKRAM to every 1 litre of water.
Apply SKRAM to saturate the soil in such a manner that it gets into the root ball below the stem along with the rest of the soil/growing media.
Rinse with water after 10 minutes. This may take more than one application to fully control the infestation.
Question: Does SKRAM have a bad odour?
Answer: No. You may notice a barely perceptible odour of soap when washing the plant, but there will be no odour when the plant wash has dried.
Question: Are there any harmful ingredients in SKRAM?
Answer: All chemical components are safe at the specified concentrations and are biodegradable. Please read label.
Question: I want to use SKRAM in my garden’s soil, but I have no way of mixing it in large quantities. What can I do?
Answer: This will be an estimation since we do not know how much water you will use per plant per watering.
Add 1 teaspoon (5ml’s) SKRAM to 4.5 litres of water and mix. Apply 1ml or 2ml to the surface of the soil around the plant’s root zone using a watering can or a pump-up sprayer. Do this for each plant. Now, water the plants with your garden hose. You can do this as often as you like. Have fun, spray some rows and not others to prove to yourself that it was worth the effort. We think you’re going to be blown away with the results!
Pro Grower Note:
Question: Will SKRAM remove insects right away?
Answer: It will depend on the insect. Studies have shown removal percentages following first application given insect to be:
Whitefly 100% removed
Aphids 98% removed
Russet mites 98% removed
Thrips 90% removed
Spider mites 89% removed
Adolescent mites (Broad, Russet, Spider, Etc.) and most adult pests will be washed away quickly. However, insects that have not been coated properly with SKRAM may live up to 24 hours before falling off the plant. Aphids never seem to move once they have been in contact with SKRAM. This may appear like they are still attached, but upon closer inspection, they can be brushed from the leaf. Mealybugs are very hard to remove, but SKRAM removes them quickly once it has penetrated their webbing.
Question: How do I use SKRAM with predatory insects?
Answer: SKRAM is a great choice to use as a treatment for infestations before releasing predatory mites, aphids, etc. You want to wash away the pests and their young, before releasing the predatory insects. This method will cost you less money in the long-run and give you a better chance of a successful predatory insect population. Once SKRAM has dried it will not harm the predatory insects. Always apply SKRAM and wait for it to dry before releasing predatory insects. It’s also a good idea to make sure most of the adult pests, their larvae and eggs are removed, before releasing predatory insects. We recommend using SKRAM at standard strength once every 7-10 days between the release of predatory insects. Discontinue the use of SKRAM once you have released the predatory insects. Predatory insects are great for protecting gardens if predatory numbers are high in number, however, the cost of introducing enough predatory insects to stop an infestation before the plants are beyond help ends up being quite expensive. Spray the plants with SKRAM, release the predatory insects after 80-100% of the pests are dead
Question: Can SKRAM be used in a hydroponic system to remove insects in the growing media?
If possible, isolate one plant and test it before treating the entire crop. This will tell you how sensitive the plant is and whether you should increase the dose or reduce it. Root drenches should be done after the plant’s media has had a clear water flush and the plants are fully hydrated. Root drenches should take place for 10 minutes, then rinse with water.
Dosage: 15ml of SKRAM per 1 litre of water. Second or third applications should only be done if needed.
Note: Some growers have seen the benefit of applying water to the leaves to help keep the plant’s roots from drawing in the SKRAM.
Question: Can you use higher doses of SKRAM than the label recommends?
Answer: We do not recommend using more than 15ml to 30ml per litre of water.
Generally speaking, you will wash away almost all of the insects on the first spray, because SKRAM is the Ultimate Pest Prevention. However, it seems that no matter how well you cover the plant with spray, there will be some insects that find a way to hide and not get hit by the application. This is why we recommend treating every three days until you do not see any more insects. Once you get close to a zero population, you can start your IPM (Integrated Pest Management) programme, making applications every 7-10 days. An IPM programme using SKRAM is very inexpensive in many ways. It is inexpensive to apply and it keeps your produce consistently the same quality, so your market share will not drop. Losing market share, because of a pest attack, is heart breaking.
Some elaborate grow facilities where street clothes are exchanged for sterile work clothes and great care has been taken to seal the enclosed environments can push their IPM applications of SKRAM to every 14 days.
You can make multiple applications on the same day if the infestation calls for it. For example, if the plant is totally covered with Russet mites, you can spray two times on the same day to make sure SKRAM comes into contact with all of the insects, but ensure the plant is well hydrated.
Question: Can I wash the leaves with SKRAM to keep my plants from getting infested?
Rinsing the plants weekly will keep most pests at bay.
Dosage: 15ml-30ml SKRAM per litre of water. Use the lower dose first, if unsatisfactory, use the higher dose. This should be done regularly.
Question: How do you keep the plants from getting infested with mites?
Answer: Never allow the mites to get to the infestation stage. This means you need to make the plant an undesirable place to live and thrive by continually spraying them with SKRAM. It is very affordable and it should be part of your success story.
Question: Should SKRAM be applied to buds or blooms?
Answer: Yes and No.
SKRAM is very kind to plants. However, no liquid, including water should be sprayed on a bud or bloom unless it is necessary. Just the minerals alone in water can alter the taste, smell, and looks of a bud or bloom. If it is necessary to apply SKRAM because of a pest infestation that could kill all the plants, it would be better to spray the buds than not to spray. SKRAM should be applied to one bud/bloom and then assess for any adverse problems associated with its application. This would include taste, smell, and visual problems before applying to the whole crop. Use the least amount needed to get the job done.
Question: Should I water the plants before using SKRAM?
Answer: Yes and No
If the plants are potted, it is always a good idea to hydrate them before spraying. Dehydrated plants can absorb through the leaf pores (stomata) to hydrate themselves and this is where things can become problematic. Water potted plants and wait for 30-60 minutes for them to fully hydrate before application. Plants can get dehydrated because the fertiliser levels in the soil are too high. High levels of fertiliser keep the roots from bringing in water, but at the same time, the mineral uptake still takes place. This causes the water to fertiliser ratio to go out of balance within the plant. This can cause leaf curl, tip burns, leaf droop, and pest infestation. Flush the plants growing medium of excess salts before you apply SKRAM. Field grown plants do not need to be watered, but it certainly would not be a problem. Generally speaking, field-grown plants have a root system that reaches a constant source of water that helps them to be fully hydrated. When in doubt, water the plants.
Question: Do I need to adjust the pH of SKRAM after I add 30ml to 1 litre of water?
Answer: No, and maybe.
For insect treatment, we see no reason to raise the pH. For leaf treatments for powdery mildew and mould, adding a pH adjuster formulated with potassium may be beneficial. We say this, because some growers have done this and said it helped. However, some have said it did not. Should you wish to raise the pH of the ready to use spray, try it on one plant first and observe before treating the whole crop.
Question: How did I get powdery mildew and what can I do about it?
Answer: Powdery Mildew, Bud rot, and bacterial contamination happen when growing areas have:
1. High humidity on plant surfaces: High humidity occurs when your lighting goes OFF and temperatures drop (Dew Point).
2. Leaves touching: Plants were grown too close together without sufficient air-flow through them to dry the leaves and stems.
3. Leaf sprays that do not dry completely: Using a leaf spray that does not dry quickly adds humidity and moisture to the leaf surface allowing mildew to thrive.
4. You must sanitise all spray equipment before and after using them! This sanitisation procedure is an absolute must!
5. You could be applying powdery mildew to your plants without knowing it. Do not leave leaf spray products in the sprayer. Leaf spray products will lose their ability to control bacteria and fungus over time. Make a batch to spray, spray it and clean the sprayer the same day.
Question: Can I rinse off SKRAM after spraying?
Answer: Yes. You can rinse it off after you have determined the infestation is under control. It is much easier to rinse off than oil based products.
Question: Before spraying my potted plants with SKRAM what do I do?
Answer: Before you apply SKRAM, flush the plant site well with water and wait 30-60 minutes. We recommend flushing until the run-off from the pot has the same electrical conductivity as water.
Question: Should I spray the plants before I bring them inside?
Answer: Yes. Plants should be sprayed with SKRAM before they are brought into any indoor or outdoor setting. If you do not see any pests, we still suggest you quarantine them until you do not detect any pests, or their eggs for 10 days. Spray them with SKRAM every 3 days while they are in quarantine.
Question: Is SKRAM skin safe?
Answer: The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) are recommending that you cover up with protective clothing and proper equipment such as gloves, eyewear and mask when you spray. As with any product, discontinue using the product if a rash occurs as you may be allergic to one or more of its ingredients. When used as directed, SKRAM is fairly gentle to the skin, but should be rinsed off after contact with the skin.
Question: Once I add the SKRAM concentrate to water how long will it remain effective?
Answer: Always use/spray on the same day that you dilute it.
Question: Should I spray when the lights are off or when they are on?
Answer: This issue is debatable. We have seen no harm spraying when the lights were on, as long as HID lighting is not too close to the plants. Fluorescent and LED lighting can be fairly close to the plants without ill effects. Spray one part of a plant and watch for possible indications of problems, before spraying the entire crop.
Question: What kind of sprayer do you recommend?
Answer: We suggest whole-house paint sprayers with an orifice designed for spraying lacquer paint.
Question: My plants used to grow slowly when I used my old plant wash, but this does not happen with SKRAM. What is the reason for this?
Answer: This is a valid observation. Oil-based plant washes will slow plant growth. This is because oil and water do not mix well. The oil needs to have a heavy-duty detergent or soap added to it so that it will disperse in water. When the combination of oil and detergent/soap is sprayed on the leaves and dries, it can block the stomatal pore on the leaf and inhibit the entry of CO2 into the plant and therefore inhibit downstream plant sugar production by photosynthesis. The residues on the leaf surface can also block light to the chloroplasts. You will be glad to know that SKRAM will not reduce plant growth.
Question: What is the customer feedback on SKRAM?
Answer: We have found people leaving SKRAM reviews on social media and you can read and watch some reviews on our MAVENPLANTPRODUCTS Instagram and also watch video reviews on our Maven Plant Products YouTube Channel. Join our Instagram and subscribe to our YouTube Channel to keep up to date with the latest news and products.
Question: Does Maven International Limited make any other products?
Answer: Maven International Limited have a number of products in development and we will be manufacturing, marketing and distributing them in the future. All our products are designed to optimise the growth, development and propagation of plants.
MAVEN® TRIPLE M® TRIPLE P® and SKRAM® are registered trademarks owned by Maven International Limited